Distribution of Groundwater Quality Characteristics in Selected Areas in Ninevah Governorate by using Three Dimensions Contour Map

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Abdulmehsin S. Shihab
Waled M. Alabdraubaa
Ahmed Khalel

Abstract

Groundwater is considered one of the important water resources in the world. Due to rain shortage and the decrease of Tigris river discharge in the last years, wells excavation and groundwater use for different purposes had been increased without any planning. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the studies about groundwater quality in Ninevah governorate and define its suitability uses. Additionally, to identify the levels of some trace elements in it, twenty seven wells recently excavated were selected in the study area located south-east Mosul city of about an area of 1500km2. These wells were located in rural and urban areas of various activities: agricultural, industrial and residential. Water samples were collected each two months starting at December 2008 till June 2009. Physical tests were conducted including total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, as well chemical tests, which include pH, total hardness, positive ions: calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and negative ions: sulfates, nitrates, chlorides, in addition to some of trace element: lead, cadmium, zinc and copper using standard methods for water examination. The geological formation and stratigraphy of the area were described. The right side wells are located within Fatha formation while left side wells are located within Injana formation. Water quality data were statistically analyzed and the results showed significant difference among the wells for all the parameters. These are attributed to the variations geological formations within the study area between Fatha formation which contains gypsum and calcite which has the ability to dissolve in water, while Injana formation contains less amounts of such rocks. Three dimensions contour maps were drawn for water quality parameters and wells coordinate. They showed a clear view for water quality distribution in the area which can be a guide in the excavation of wells of better water quality.

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References

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